The 7th edition of the APA (American Psychological Association) style guide provides guidelines for formatting and citing research papers in the social sciences. Some of the key elements of APA citation style include
- Use 8.5 x 11 inch white paper
- Use a 12-point font, such as Times New Roman
- Use double-spacing throughout the paper, including the reference list
- Include a running head on each page with a shortened version of the title (50 characters or fewer)
- Include page numbers in the header, starting with the title page
- Include a title page with the paper’s title, author’s name, and institutional affiliation
- Include the author’s last name and publication year in parentheses, such as (Smith, 2020)
- If a direct quote, include the page number in the citation, such as (Smith, 2020, p. 15)
- If there are multiple authors, include all authors in the citation, up to seven authors. For eight or more authors, use “et al.”
- If the source has no author, use the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the publication year, such as (“Title,” 2020)
- Start a new page for the reference list
- List references in alphabetical order by the first author’s last name
- APA 7th edition format of the reference book, article, and online news or magazine article
APA 6th edition
Author Name (Year of Publication). Title. City: Publisher
APA 7th edition
Author Name (Year of Publication). Title. Publisher
Author Name (Year of Publication). Title. Journal Name. Vol. Issue, Page No.
Online News or Magazine Article
Author Name (Year of Publication, Month Day). Title. Website name. URL
- For book and online news or magazine titles, italics are used, and for journal names, italics are used for journals.
- How to write a name۔
Tamilselvan, L., & Sankaranarayanan, V. (2008). Prevention of co-operative black hole attack in MANET. J. Networks, 3(5), 13-20.
- Use proper capitalization for titles and subtitles, but use sentence case for journal articles
- Use proper punctuation, such as periods, commas, and parentheses
- These are just a few of the guidelines for formatting and citing sources using APA style. For more detailed information and examples, please refer to the “Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association” 7th edition.